Smartphones, Tablets, and Screen Time – Oh, My! (Guest Blogger: Bridget Meis, M.S.Ed.)

Technology is around us from the moment we wake up until the moment we go to bed.  With the increase in the amount of exposure that children have with technology, there are many questions and ideas about what is appropriate. How much screen time is too much? What apps will help my child’s development?  Children get enough technology at home, should I even have it in the classroom? These are just a few questions that come to mind.

There are millions of apps available for download to smartphones and tablets.  When we look at these apps, we must consider several different features in order to choose quality apps that will enhance children’s development rather than just passively exposing them to screen time.

App Features to Consider

We want to look at apps that offer a divergent path and choice making opportunitiesfor children to be able to actively engagewith the app.  Think of the choose your own adventure books that you may have read as a child; these books gave you the opportunity to make your own choice during the story and then see what happens because of that choice.  When we think of apps that offer a divergent path, they provide that same opportunity for decision making, problem-solving, and exploring what happens next.

Children will go through stages of development when using apps, just like they do with real materials. First, the children will tap and explore cause and effect.  Through exploring, children will develop the confidence and skills to make certain things happen within the app.  Finally, children will be able to use the app as it was intended to be used.

So, with that in mind, we want to offer apps that are open ended and invite the children to explorethe features of the app in a non-threatening environment.  Find apps that children can tap and explore in any way that they choose, and there is not a wrong way to use the app.  Some apps that offer this feature are the Toca Boca apps.  There are several available where children can discover on their own what will happen as the interact with the screen.

Apps will never take the place of real-life experiences, so when you are choosing apps, try to find ones that will enhance hands on experiencesor children’s knowledge about the real world.  Give them a chance to take pictures and edit those pictures with games, such as Toca Hair Salon.  You can also find apps that allow children to take pictures of their artwork – the Keepy App with do this, or even create their own stories and save them as a PDF, such as Storybook.  Find apps that will be relevant to the children’s experiences.

We want to keep in mind that when we are giving children the opportunity to use apps with smartphones or tablets, that choosing a quality app is not enough when we look at the appropriate use of technology with young children.  We want to think about how we are interacting with the children as they use the app.  Are we there with the children as they play, to help facilitate and guide the child on how to use the app?  Are we there to encourage conversations and questions about how the app connects to the real world?

Technology is here to stay. Model appropriate use of technology with children as you use it and children use it.  Children are always watching what we are doing, and they will learn from the example you set.


Bridget Meis, M.S. Ed, is an Early Childhood Resource Specialist for STARnet Regions I & III. During her time with STARnet, she has presented on a variety of topics including: Apps and Assistive Technology, Social/Emotional development, Creative Curriculum, Teaching Strategies GOLD, Portfolios, Lesson Planning, Mathematics in Early Childhood, Science and Mathematics, STEAM and Family Engagement. Bridget has worked in the field of Early Childhood Education since 2003. She received her Bachelor’s degree in Early Childhood Education from Illinois State University and her Master’s degree in Early Childhood Education from Erikson Institute. Bridget has worked in a variety of early childhood programs with diverse groups of children from as young as six weeks old to children in fifth grade. Bridget has served children and families in private childcare programs and most recently with Head Start.

Removing Systemic Barriers in Education Through Universal Design for Learning (Guest blogger: Jana Nicol, M.Ed.)

“Fair doesn’t always mean equal.”

As an elementary school teacher, sometimes it is necessary to help young students to develop a more sophisticated understanding of fairness. Part of building classroom community is helping students understand that we all have different needs, and that everyone has an equal right to learn. ​This picture usually comes to mind when I think of this topic:

In the first image of this picture, everyone is given the exact same support. They are being treated equally, but they are not being treated fairly. If we are striving to teach all of our students fairly, then some students may be given different supports which gives everyone an equal chance of success. This often results in accommodations, such as providing extra time, or printing worksheets in larger print for those who need it.

The picture above is definitely more widely distributed than this one:

The third image in this picture is an excellent example of Universal Design for Learning. The need for additional supports is eliminated altogether because the systemic barrier has been removed. For teachers who wish to implement UDL in their classrooms, we must think of ways to reduce the need for additional supports.

As teachers, we may not have the ability to completely remove the need for accommodations in our classroom, because we lack control over some of the systemic barriers that make learning challenging for some students. For example, we may lack funding for technology, or we may be obligated to follow a set regulations for the administration of standardized assessments.

But we can at least make the effort to empower ourselves to remove as many barriers as we can in our own classrooms in ways that are affordable and feasible. Here are just a few ways that we can help remove barriers in our own classrooms to benefit all students:

  • We can make classroom materials accessible – we can put materials within everyone’s reach, add labels with words and pictures, keep them in a consistent location so students can remember where they are kept, and make small purchases that increase accessibility in the classroom (e.g. left-handed scissors, magnifying glasses, fidgets).

  • We can offer flexible seating – we can have a variety of seating arrangements in the classroom to maximize comfort for all students (traditional desk and chair, stools, stability balls, yoga mats, standing desk, milk crates, etc). We can allow students to sit on the floor, under tables, anywhere where they feel comfortable, provided that they are following classroom expectations for work. We can also allow movement from one seat to another and provide movement breaks for the whole class throughout the day because some students need more movement than others.

  • We can offer accommodations to all students – not everyone will need them, but making them available to everyone takes the stigma away from those who rely on them and can benefit everyone. For example, taking away time limits from a test is not only beneficial for those who need more time, but it can also help alleviate anxiety for those who become anxious when they are being timed.

 

  • We can establish and follow predictable routines – many students thrive on routine, and they like to know what to expect. We can have well-established routines for passing out and collecting materials, transitioning between activities, getting ready to go outside, etc. We can post a visual schedule in a prominent area of the room and follow it. I use a visual schedule that is changed daily. Each card has text supported by visuals, which makes it more accessible to those who struggle with reading.

  • We can activate background knowledge before discussing a given topic. Students come to school with a diverse range of experiences and some students may benefit from learning a little bit about a topic before jumping into a lesson. For some students, skipping this step can make a learning activity completely inaccessible to them. And for other students, we can improve the quality of their work by refreshing their memory about a given topic. For example, if we are asking students to write out instructions for making a snowman, we cannot assume that every student has experience with this. Maybe their parents do not allow them to play outside, or perhaps they have moved from a warmer climate. Before the writing activity, we can discuss the steps involved in building a snowman, watch a video of children building a snowman, or take the entire class outside to build snowmen (if you live in a snowy climate).

 

  • Heighten the salience of goals/objectives – Some students need to have a sense of purpose in learning tasks. They need to know why they are doing what they are doing… or what the point of an activity is. Taking time to review a lesson’s objectives in simple language at the beginning of a lesson can help students understand what they need to know and why. Here is a picture of the goal board I use in my classroom, which is written in student-friendly language.


Jana Nicol, B.A., B.Ed., M.Ed., is an elementary school teacher in Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada. She has researched Universal Design for Learning (UDL) extensively, having written essays on better practices of implementing UDL in elementary school classrooms. She also led a team of teachers through an action research project which sought to increase student engagement through the implementation of UDL practices. She authors the website http://theudlproject.com, where she has shared the findings of this action research, and writes blogs about UDL. She has also facilitated professional development workshops on UDL.